Amudarya river basin

Water management infrastructure

The main tasks of water management system is regulation of flow, delivery of water to all water users, the main of which is irrigation, and preservation of the environment.

The large-scale irrigated farming in Amudarya basin is mostly based on a well developed system of irrigation and drainage facilities, including unique projects such as the Karshi Steppe, where pumping stations with a total capacity of 350 m3/sec lift water for 180 m, Amu-Bukhara canal lifts about 200 m3/sec of water for 130 m, and a several large-scale gravity irrigation systems with the longest in the World Karakum canal, which length is about 1000 km and the mean annual water withdrawal is about 700 m3/sec. Karakum canal diverted about 18 km3 of water per year from the flow of the Amudarya river to the southern part of Turkmenistan.

At the same time there are some old irrigation systems, mostly in Karakalpakstan and Khorezm, where irrigation network represented by unlined canals and drainage systems with open drains. Table shows the situation with existed irrigated area in the Amudarya river basin.

Irrigated area in the Amudarya River basin

Country

Irrigated area brutto, thousands ha

1960

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

Kyrgyzstan

5,0

21,8

22,0

22,3

23,8

24,2

22,4

22,1

Tajikistan

210,0

417,7

450,2

462,4

455,2

453,6

494,4

498,7

Turkmenistan

435,0

928

1158,0

1294,9

1671,9

1738,8

1817,8

1869,0

Uzbekistan

1625,0

1907,0

2191,8

2363,9

2390,0

2376,3

2433,6

2422,8

Total the basin

2275

3275

3822

4144

4541

4593

4768

4813



There are specific complications in the Amudarya basin dealing with the problem location of headwater structures of some main canals on the territory of the neighboring country. For example, headwater structures of the Karshi canal and Amu-Bukhara canal, which delivery water from Amudarya to the territory of Uzbekistan, and about 150 km of those canals are located on the territory of Turkmenistan. The same, Tashauz canal begins on the territory of Uzbekistan, and then passed the water to the Turkmen territory. To regulate operational problems for these canals there was signed a special bilateral agreement between Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.