Interactive map of the best practices

on the use of water, land and energy resources,
as well as the environment of Central Asia

Comparison of practices

Selected practice: Establishment of the Aravan-Akbura Main Canal Water User Union (AAMC-WUU)

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Establishment and development of WUAs, enhancement of technical capacities of intra-farm irrigation and drainage infrastructure

Actions: Within the framework of the first World Bank Project “Intra-Farm Irrigation” (PVO-1), in the course of 5-6 years more than 450 WUAs were established which are currently independently servicing the intra-farm irrigation network supplying water to over 700 thous. ha of agricultural land. In addition, the intra-farm water supply networks of 354 WUAs were fully re-balanced from the books of rural administrations and other economic entities. 1,138 km of intra-farm irrigation and 142.3 km of collector and drainage networks, 32 day run-off ponds, 3,401 hydro-posts, etc. underwent rehabilitation.  Trainings on all aspects of WUA operation (administration, financial management, water use, O&M of WUA irrigation infrastructure, legal framework of WUA activities, monitoring) were conducted covering over 48 thous. WUA members. The Law of the KR “On Water User Unions (Associations)” was adopted (February 2002). 35 Water Management Councils covering 229.4 thous. ha of irrigated land were established. In addition, 14 Unions (Federations) of Water User Associations covering 121.7 thous. ha of irrigated land were created and underwent legal registration across the country. The purposes of such Unions are joint operation and technical maintenance of intra-farm networks located within their respective service zones. In early 2008, the 2nd Project “Intra-Farm Irrigation” (PVO-2) was launched to extend further support to, build the capacity of and train about 500 WUAs in all regions of the republic.  Out of them, 29 WUAs covering the irrigated area of approx. 51,000 ha executed rehabilitation operations and upgraded their irrigation and drainage systems. Within the framework of implementing this practice, WUAs received assistance to ensure their ability to effectively and productively use the rehabilitated intra-farm irrigation systems in a sustainable manner with the special focus on water resources and assets management. Results: The practice facilitated capacity building of WUAs, improving of water resources management by WUAs as well as enhancing the technical capacities of intra-farm and drainage infrastructure.
Кыргызстан, Таласская

Examination and monitoring of Enilchek Glacier and Lake Merzbacher

The Sary-Dzhaz River Basin which includes Enilchek -- the largest glacier in the country – is one of main sources of fresh water and a potential source for hydropower in the region. The region is of special significance as to investigating the probability of both natural and natural-technogenic disasters.  It also plays an important role in rational water supply in Kyrgyzstan and the adjacent territory of Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China, as well as planning large-scale infrastructure projects (ex.: cascading hydro-power stations). Based on the observation data of the last decade, climate change is the reason behind the regressing Tien Shan glaciation.  It leads to reduction of shared water resources, activation of mud flows, floods and glacial lake outbursts.  The largest known glacier-dammed Lake Merzbacher is characterized by one of the most severe and regular annual disruptive glacial floods.  It was necessary to examine hydrological, climatic and glacial changes associated with altering region- and global-scale atmospheric circulations, i.e. their effect on the central section of Enilchek Glacier (confluence point of its two branches -- Northern and Southern Enilchek). Actions: Enilchek Glacier research was carried out on the premises of Merzbacher Station established jointly by CAIAG and GFZ in August 2009.  Subsequently, it is planned to expand the set of measuring tools used for studying Enilchek Glacier. Project scope included field research in the Sary-Dzhaz and Enilchek River Basins, collection of measurements from automatic meteo- and seismic stations, hydro-posts on Northern Enilchek Bridge and Southern Enilchek ablation stake. Automatic meteorological stations provide data on temperature, precipitation, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind and total solar radiation necessary to reveal the impact of altering climatic parameters on glacier balance, discharge of the Enilchek River and outburst discharge regime of Lake Merzbacher.  Project efforts allowed better identification of summer glacial discharge for separate glaciers (Northern and Southern Enilchek) via automatic hydro-posts. Water level and ice surface fluctuations in Lake Merz-bacher were subject to monitoring and registration via water pressure sensors developed GFZ, OpenGPS Sensor (laser scanning technology) and visual observations (high-resolution web-cameras). Results: The CAIAG monitoring network was established under research grants and third-party project investments.  The installed GPRS-modems allowed to automatically transfer data to CAIAG server on a daily basis. The network of interlinked stations was created already under the GCO-CA Project, including MRZ1 and MRZ2 stations close to Lake Merzbacher on northern and southern walls of Northern and Southern Enilchek Glaciers.  The third ICED Station – to measure glacier speed and monitor the dam -- was installed on the ice dam. The project allowed the e-mapping of the Sary-Dzhaz River Basin, making and assessing Enilchek Glacier geophysical and capacity measurements, as well as identifying lineaments, breaks and crossbars near outburst-prone Lake Merzbacher.  Analyses of satellite imagery allowed identifying rock slides in the form of paleoseismic dislocations within the 50 km radius of the merger point of the Sary-Dzhaz River and the Enilchek River (its left-bank tributary).  The deciphered paleoseismic dislocations prove the region’s high seismicity.  In the future, project results can be used for designing and building the Sary-Dzhaz Hydropower Station. Financial and economic: The received results manifest an important contribution to planning and implementing secure economic development efforts in the Sary-Dzhaz River Basin, in particular, designing, building and operating hydropower plants in the region. Environmental: Project outcomes serve basis for assessing and forecasting climatic and ecological variability of water resources. Social: reduced probability of sudden destruction of engineering facilities; increased security for the residents of the Sary-Dzhaz River Basin.
Кыргызстан, Иссык-Кульская, Ак-Суйский

Restoration of irrigation infrastructure in mountainous regions of Kyrgyzstan

Disputes over water resources and pastures can lead to conflicts, in particular among the communities living in border zones in the Fergana Valley.  Every year, this urgent issue gains even more relevance as - according to expert forecasts – by 2020 Kyrgyzstan’s population may reach 7 mln 70% of which will live in rural communities. Actions: The project to rehabilitate irrigation canals aimed to improve access to water resources and pastures for local residents.  The project also promoted introduction of equal-right practices in the sphere of water resources and pastures management among local population.  All project actions targeted the improvement of living conditions of local residents and decreasing tensions. Results: On June 8, 2016, Aga Khan Foundation (AKF) and Aga Khan Development Network (AKDN) held the ceremonial opening of 5 repaired irrigation canals in Nookat District of Osh Region.  Repair works to rehabilitate the irrigation canals were co-funded by Nookat District Water Management Administration, ajyl aimaks (Kyrg. rural local governance bodies) and local residents themselves. Financial and economic: residents of Nookat District, nearby villages of Aravan District and the town of Kyzyl-Kiya gained access to irrigation water; farmer incomes grew thanks to addressing the issue of irrigation water shortage. Environmental: The condition of over 4,000 ha (irrigated land) improved. Technical results: The total length of all repaired irrigation canals exceeded 10,900 meters. Social results: living conditions of local residents improved; tensions associated with the use of water and pastures in Fergana Valley border zones decreased.
Кыргызстан, Ошская, Ноокатский

Increasing water use efficiency on WUA and water user levels

Кыргызстан, Джалал-Абадская

Application of furrow-based counter irrigation

Technology applicability In the majority of Central Asian countries, irrigated agriculture is based on flooding irrigation (ex.: wheat) and/or furrow-based irrigation (other crops).  Against the background of climate change and global water shortage, the traditional and/or currently practiced irrigation methods have lost their relevance and are no longer justified, in particular, in the Aral Sea area.  In addition, watering the whole field of uneven relief based on traditional furrow-based technique requires long time. In many cases, traditional watering leads to uneven water distribution (alternating dry and bogging spots) across the field and rising ground water level.  The suggested technology of counter irrigation is suitable for watering areas with even/flat relief, i.e. flat/lowland territories of Central Asian countries. Technology description The technology is quite simple and consists of simultaneous irrigation of a field from two sides.  It was appraised in Uzbekistan’s northwestern part within the framework of the ZEF/UNESCO Project.  The technology’s pilot application demonstrated that furrow-based counter irrigation can be used as a technical option of irrigating undeviating (even) sites and increases water efficiency due to more uniform water distribution along furrows.  This effective water-conservation technology has been already widely tested in Central Asian countries, including Uzbekistan (Syr Darya and Khorezm Regions) by SANIIRI. Advantages Water-saving – results of the system’s field pilot testing show that compared to traditional furrow-based irrigation counter watering allows saving up to 20% of irrigation water during vegetation season; Decreased seasonal land salination at furrow ends – land salination at furrow ends due to poor absorption of irrigation water and high capillarity can be reduced by half; Increased yields – application of the method allows increasing crop yields in general by 30-35%, and specifically for cotton – by 0.5 tons/ha; Application and design enhancements of furrow-based irrigation (discharge optimizing, washing irrigation, field laser planning) allow increasing the technology’s efficiency from the current 45% up to 65%.
Узбекистан, Хорезмская, Урганчский

Using the DUV 2/0.005-10 Water Level Sensor to automate the process of water accounting, level monitoring and management in Southern Kazakhstan

The DUV 2/0,005-10 Sensor was deployed and demonstrated its efficiency in Jambyl and Southern Kazakhstan Regions.  It allowed to visually and in real-time observe the dynamics of water level fluctuations and completely exclude manual operations and subjectivity in the process of taking readings – a relevant task in the environment of transition to market economy. Water level sensors were installed in 17 hydro-posts in Southern Kazakhstan Region (Maktaaral District).  In Jambyl Region, the same sensors were installed in 3 hydro-posts in Merke District. Results: Technical: a) immediate data exchange on water volume passing through every water lead to the fields of agricultural producers (farms) as well as automatic transfer of this information to stakeholder organizations (branch of “Kazvodkhoz” Republican State Enterprise (RSE), etc.); b) archiving the data coming from hydro-posts with its subsequent processing in the form of reports. Technical and economic: 1) “all in one” – all components of DUV 2/0.005-10 are assembled into one unit/casing, do not require any additional modules and adjustments, i.e. it is an out-of-the-box universal tool to execute monitoring of water reserves irrespective of the availability of power supply and other technical and weather conditions.  The simple Sensor’s design facilitates installation and start-up and commissioning, as well as allows minimizing labor costs; 2) DUV 2/0.005-10 is flexible in terms of installation, data transfer methods, measurement subject (water level or hydro-lock position, etc.); 3) the cost of the measuring unit is 3-4 times less compared to currently available alternatives; 4) DUV 2/0.005-10 designed architecture allows increasing the number of controlled points and performing an integrated monitoring of the whole network.
Казахстан, Южно-Казахстанская, Мактааральский

Resource-saving technology of operating vertical drain-age wells based on drainage water re-use in irrigated massifs

Казахстан, Южно-Казахстанская, Мактааральский

Increasing water supply of distant pastures

Казахстан, Южно-Казахстанская
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