THE INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP «PROBLEMS AND INFORMATION SUPPORT OF INTEGRATED WATER MANAGEMENT IN CHIRCHIK-AKHANGARAN BASIN»
Scientific Information Center (SIC) of the Interstate Commission for Water Coordination (ICWC) of Central Asia together with partners from Germany, Greece, the Netherlands, Sweden and Benin, West Africa is implementing specific research RIVERTWIN Project (Regional Model for Integrated Water Resources Management in Twinned River Basins).
The general project coordination is provided by partners from Germany.
On January 6-7, 2005, the international workshop dedicated to problems and information support of integrated water management in Chirchik-Akhangaran basin was held in Training Center of SIC ICWC as a part of activities under the project component of «Public participation and awareness» and in order to develop general approaches to implementation of the project.
Organizers: SIC ICWC of Central Asia and Tashkent Provincial Committee for Nature Conservation (Uzbekistan).
Co-chairmen: Director of SIC ICWC Prof. V.A.Dukhovny and the Head of Tashkent Provincial Committee for Nature Conservation T.Irgashev.
Managers, experts and key specialists of public authorities, water sector, environmental agencies, research and design institutes, and non-governmental non-profit organizations (NGO) took part in the workshop, including:
Tashkent city and provincial Committee for nature conservation and its regional (Almalyk, Angren, Chirchik, etc.) and district (Bostanlyk, Urta-Chirchil, Yukori-Chirchik, Akkurgan) branches; Tashkent province khokimiyat (municipality) (Central Administration for economics, departments for labor market and employment, industry, demography, and agricultural sector); Chirchik-Akhangaran Basin Administration for Irrigation System (CABAIS); Administrations for Irrigation Systems (AIS) “Parkent-Karasu” and “Bozsu”; Hydrogeological and Land Reclamation Service (HLRS) at CABAIS; Tashkent provincial agricultural and water management organization; State stock company “Uzbekenergo”; Tashkent hydrogeological service; Research Institute “Gidroingeo”; Institute for Market Reforms; State Inspection for nature conservation, Specialized inspections and Operational teams for rational use and preservation of water resources in the Chirchik river basin; “Tashvilsuvokova”; “Vodproyekt” association; Uzbek Research Institute for Forestry (UzNIILH); Uzbek National University (UNU); Research Hydrometeorological Institute (NIGMI) at Uzgidromet; Representative Office of Central Asian Regional Ecological Center (REC) in Uzbekistan; NGOs: “Logos”, Uzbekistan Traveling Association “Rabat malik”, Chirchik initiative group “Yur-Eco”, Center of Ecological Advocateship “Armon”; Uzbek zoological society; Basin water-management organizations (BWO) “Syrdarya”, Scientific Production Association (SPA) “SANIIRI”, SIC ICWC, Kazakh and Kyrgyz branches of SIC ICWC.
In total, more than 70 people participated in the workshop.
Such large number of representatives of relevant organizations from Tashkent province can be explained both by substantial territorial priority and by socio-economic weight of the province relative to Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan’s areas in Chirchik-Akhangaran basin (CAB). Thus, the area of Tashkent province, which is entirely located in CAB is 15,6 thousand km2 (71,2%). The area of the Keles river basin (Shymkent province) in Kazakhstan, where Keless massif refers, is 3,3 thousand km2 (15,1%), while the Chatkal river basin (Jalalabad province) in Kyrgyzstan occupies about 3,0 thousand km2 (13,7%). Tashkent province is one of the largest economic regions in Uzbekistan, where water and nature management problems are the most representative and typical in context of tasks to be solved by RIVERTWIN project.
The project objective is to develop, adapt and apply an integrated regional model for strategic planning of water resources management in twinned river basins having different climates and environmental, social, and economic conditions.
Initially, the model is developed and approbated for European river basin (Germany: the Neckar river). The model is planned to be tested in river basins in West Africa (Benin: the Oueme basin) and Central Asia (the rivers Chirchik, Akhangaran, Keles). The Central Asian project zone covers the areas of Kazakhstan (Keless massif), Kyrgyzstan (Chatkal upstream), and Uzbekistan (Tashkent province).
SIC ICWC, as project coordinator in Central Asia, carries out research in order to identify priorities and key issues of water management in transboundary Chirchik-Akhangaran basin. By using modeling tool, it is planned to develop an integrated economic growth scenario for the basin. The river basin development scenarios are to be developed.
Social, economic, environmental and other indicators of sustainable development in the river basis are to be developed together with the key water users through discussions and selection of scenarios suggested to relevant agencies as a basis for basin water management plans.
The river basin development scenarios should answer the following questions:
The following reports were presented in the workshop:
1. “RIVERTWIN Project aim and objectives” (V.Dukhovny’s report was presented by SIC ICWC Deouty Director V.Sokolov). The report addressed adaptation of general project aims and objectives to Chirchik-Akhangaran basin and transfer to hydroecological-based management in the basin in the future.
The report also describes the primary problems in CAB to be solved and the possibilities of applying European approaches to water management at river basin level and indicates to a need for the project to result in CAB development plan for next 20-25 years;
2. «Partner visions regarding RIVERTWIN project implementation and the basin’s water-related problems» (Yu.Rysbekov, SIC ICWC). The report gives information on project structure and executors (partners from far abroad, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan), primary work packages, scope, tasks, expected results and time to achieve them, as well as defines concretely a range of aspects (political, economic, environmental, legal, management, transboundary) and priorities in water sector development in CAB.
Prospective water use is considered in light of conflict-free satisfaction of water demands, including national demands (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan), power and irrigation, other economic sectors and the environment.
The reporter underlined that the Chirchik river and Charvak reservoir, despite their location in Uzbekistan, should be considered as water objects having transboundary effect. Using these water objects should follow the international standards and avoid causing harmful transboundary effect (for instance, on Kazakhstan);
3. «Models applied in RIVERTWIN project, their characteristics and association of the models with Chirchik-Akhangaran basin» (A.Tuchin, SIC ICWC). The reporter presented models as provided by the project coordinator (University of Hohenheim, Germany) and addressed their application under different degrees of data completeness. Thus, the most complete in terms of data requirements in the Neckar basin (Germany), then followed by Chirchik-Akhangaran basin (Central Asia) and Oueme basin (Benin);
4. «Representation of planning objects in the integrated Chirchik-Akhangaran basin model» (A.Sorokin, SIC ICWC). The report contains CAB modeling principles: identification of planning zones, creation of zoning and planning criteria, opportunities of describing one or another natural processes in CAB, general input collection and content requirements;
5. «RIVERTWIN project database (DB)» (A.Kats, SIC ICWC). The report addresses matters on information support for a set models used in the project, DB requirements regarding different blocks (surface water, groundwater, agriculture, ecology, socio-economic block, climate), input coding system, hierarchical links between the modeled object components;
6. «Geographical information system (GIS)» (S.Zherelieva, V.Shakhov, SIC ICWC). They addressed mapping of various modeled objects in form of GIS layers. The created GIS layers are as follows: areal (runoff generation zones, erosion processes, recreation, climatic, irrigation, etc.), linear (rivers, irrigation network, etc.), point (waterworks, gauging stations, weather stations, settlements, etc.);
7. «Analysis and evaluation of socio-economic situation in Chirchik and Akhangaran basins» (V.Prikhodko, SIC ICWC). He presented a range of issues related to the project’s socio-economic block. Figures indicating development in Tashkent province, such as GDP as a whole and by economic sector, infrastructure, demographic processes, actual income and expenditures of population, etc. were analyzed;
8. «Environmental situation Chirchik-Akhangaran basin» (I.Ruziev, SIC ICWC). He gave analysis of environmental situation and primary ecological problems in CAB (industrial, agricultural, and household pollution of water resources, erosion processes, deforestation, excessive anthropogenic load for upstream ecosystems in Chirchik basin). He described criteria for ecological zoning in CAB by the following large zones: environmentally benign, environmentally satisfactory, and environmentally poor. The report presented current environmental activities as undertaken and gave forecast for future environmental situation depending on CAB economic development options. Ecological issues in CAB were considered in context of basin location in Western Tien Shan ecosystem;
9. «Agriculture in Chirchik and Akhangaran basins» (S.Nerozin, SPA SANIIRI). The reporter presented analysis of agricultural land use in Tashkent province (crops grown, cropping patters, farming forms, gross crop yield and productivity, major indicators of livestock production and its productivity, etc.). He showed the role and place of agriculture in economic structure of the province, identified key agricultural shortcomings and problems (poor material and technical basis of shirkat and individual farms, loan policy, disparity between market and purchasing prices of basic crops, etc.);
10. «Soils in Chirchik-Akhangaran basin» (G.Stulina, SPA SANIIRI). The report included detailed characteristics of soil types found in CAB by soil-climatic zone, elevation, their distribution in Tashkent province;
11. «Climatic changes and their effect on water resources in Chirchik-Akhangaran basin» (N.Agaltsevaà, NIGMI at Uzgidromet) One of the parameters that should be considered when developing river basin development scenarios is climate change up to 2030 and its effect on generation of water resources. According to different estimations, air temperature will increase by 1,0-2,5 ?C in CAB. The glaciation area decreased by 16,8% in the Pskem river basin; this trend will be kept and, by 2020, glaciation would account for 1/3 of glacier volume in 1960. This would have negative effect on generation dynamics and volume of river runoff in upstream CAB (there is possibility of runoff reduction in Chatkal and Pskem rivers). The runoff’s snow component is also expected to decrease by 5-10%. At the same time, it is supposed that rain flow will increase by 7-10% and, as a result, will cause increase in mudflow and flood frequencies. The highest intensity of mudflow activity is expected in submountain zone in CAB;
12. “Hydropower system and prospects of its development in Chirchik-Akhangaran basin” (L.Averina, SIC ICWC). The report reflects the current state of hydropower in CAB (key indicators of generating capacities, including thermal power stations, electric energy consumption dynamics by economic sector, primary factors influencing stability of power plant operation) and the prospects of development (probable construction of HEPS at the Pskem river and other small rivers in CAB in Uzbekistan).
13. “Place and role of public participation in water management in Chirchik-Akhangaran basin” (Yu.Rysbekov, SIC ICWC). In final report presented to the workshop, Mr. Rysbekov stated SIC’s vision for implementation of block “Public participation and awareness” (PPA) under the project. Wide public involvement is stipulated at all project stages.
In his report he described the main aims and objectives of PPA that are: inform all concerned parties about project objectives; involve public in discussions on CAB development scenarios; develop decision support system for public agencies on selection of high reliable scenario; contribute to transition to civil society and ensure transparency of decision-making process in part of water resources management. He addressed participatory process manageability issues and a number of conditions to be met in this context, including balanced involvement of non-governmental institutions in WRM; development and approval of formal, along with informal, rules of involvement for both non-governmental and governmental institutions; development of the enforcement mechanisms and procedures of penalties for non-observance of those rules in order to avoid lobbying of particularistic interests and demagogy. Besides, he explained how the project results are to be disseminated among different levels (scientific: in scientific publications, at conferences and workshops in proceedings; popular: in mass media; Internet: on relevant web-sites – about progress made in development of integrated scenarios for the CAB; educational: training of major water users and other concerned persons in advanced approaches to WRM; other forms of communicating knowledge; project report: proposals on improvement of public participation in making decisions on sustainable CAB development).
The below participants also spoke at the workshop:
- I.Kulbatskiy (First Deputy Chairman, Tashkent provincial Committee for nature conservation). His speech was dedicated to analysis of the causes of environmental problems in CAB and to political, legal, financial and other aspects of sustainable nature use in the basin. He explained the role and place of environmental agencies in implementing relevant Uzbekistan Government’s decisions on rational use and conservation of natural resources in CAB and stressed the importance of coordinated actions in solving basin environmental problems.
- Prof. N.Kipshakbayev (Kazakh branch of SIC ICWC). In his speech, he addressed the legal aspects of transboundary water use in CAB, as well as the water quality problems. In Soviet period, water experts focused mainly on water quantity management, whereas water quality management should be treated as equally important aspect of water management. The speaker stressed a need for integration of efforts of water experts from different countries in order to solve water-related problems in the region, and, particularly, in the Chirchik river basin. He gave general description of the Keles river basin (Shymkent province) – project’s Kazakh zone;
- A.Djailoobayev (Kyrgyz branch of SIC ICWC). In his speech he focused on peculiarities of water use in upstream Chatkal (Djalalabad province) and on key water problems in the project’s Kyrgyz zone. As a whole, these problems relate to improvement of irrigated land productivity in upstream Chatkal (about 3,5 thousand ha), use of pastures, control of mudflow, and preservation of biodiversity;
- Prof. V.Dubinskiy (Uzbek National University, department of applied ecology). He described in details how to organize and improve environmental monitoring. He based on long-term data obtained from Inter-sectoral self-sustained water resources laboratory, which made observations in Akhangaran river basin. The required elements of effective water monitoring are: observation – data processing – communication to concerned parties – receiving response (feedback). He showed interesting data on consumption dynamics and observation network for water quality in Akhangaran basin;
- A. Loktionov (BWO “Syrdarya”). He addressed water use in interstate water objects and BWO’s jurisdiction for their operation and use. For CAB, he listed the sites (mainly, head intakes of interstate canals, such as Zakh, Khanym, etc.) that are under BWO’s control.
- Ye. Butkov (UzNIILH). In the speech he presented data on forest dynamics in Tashkent province. In particular, he noted that deforestation has no substantial effect on forest area reduction. The main problem relates to increase of livestock in personal possession that leads to increment of load for pastures (development of erosion processes) and uncontrolled pasturing in forestry areas (stem woods are eaten by cattle and forest recoverability sharply decreases);
- S.Khamidov (Deputy Chief of CABAIS). The speech was dedicated to water management in CAB. The participants were informed about BAIS aims and objectives, organizational structure and functional relationships with other hierarchical management levels, as well as about general characteristics of BAIS command zone;
- Ye.Kretsberg (Zoological society of Uzbekistan). The speaker pointed to a need for more focus on environmental aspect in context of a number of projects related to biodiversity preservation in Western Tien Shan (establishment of biosphere reserve in the areas of three republics, etc.), elaboration of sustainable nature use approaches, as well as of legal tools for public involvement in developing catchment management plans and in solving environmental problems in CAB;
- S.Sanginov (NGO “Logos”). In his speech he analyzed the public element of the project. He drew attention to a need for working over sustainable functioning of suggested Public Council or Trilateral Commission (with members from Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Uzbekistan) for CAB management and considering involvement in these institutions of NGO and other social organizations;
- V.Tsoi (NGO “Rabat Malik”). He stressed that the recreation capacity of CAB is not used efficiently. He listed factors promoting and hampering tourism in CAB and pointed to a need for consideration of considerable recreation potential in the integrated basin development scenarios;
- Kh.Kabilov (Association “Vodproyekt”), A.Preigeil (SSC “Uzbekenergo”), S.Djamalov (Institute of Market Reforms), N.Khristichenko (Tashkent province’s Khokimiyat) and many others.
Exchange of opinions and discussion on reports resulted in more accurate definition of approaches to project implementation and scenario development in order to achieve sustainable functioning of water sector in CAB in the future.
The participants decided to continue with exchanging opinions along the way and to take active part in development and analysis of Chirchik-Akhangaran basin development scenarios.