CA Water-Info

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Improvement of the system of rules

WMO acts on the basis of rules, including the principles of rated water use, control, priority, proportionality (social equity), biological optimality, rotation, consideration of all kinds of water (surface water, groundwater, return water), consideration of all kinds of water users, and accounting of natural and economic context.

Rated water use

The principle of rated water use has been in force in the Republic of Uzbekistan since 1993, according to the Regulation on the procedure for water use and water consumption in the Republic of Uzbekistan.

Control over limits of water withdrawal

The control over limits of water withdrawal is exercised by

  • The Republican Water Inspection Uzsuvnazorat at the Ministry of Agriculture and Water Management of Uzbekistan and its local divisions, in case of water withdrawal from artificial water bodies;
  • The State Committee for Nature Protection of Uzbekistan and its territorial divisions, in case of water withdrawal from natural water bodies.

Citizens and officials are administratively liable for breach of the procedure for water use and water consumptions. The following penalties are applied to water users and water consumers for breach of the procedure of water withdrawal for agricultural, fishery, industrial, energy and municipal needs:

  • for above-limit water withdrawal by water consumers - 10% of the established size of minimal salary for every thousand cubic meter above the water limit;
  • for withdrawal of water from unauthorized sources and for unwarranted water grab by water users and consumers - 20% of the established size of minimal salary for every thousand cubic meter of diverted water.

In case of repeated breach of the procedure of water use and water consumption in the course of one year, penalties are increased tenfold.

Penalties for above the limit water withdrawal are applied twice a year (proceeding from results of autumn-winter and growing seasons) for agricultural water users and once a year based on the calendar year for non-agricultural users. The limits of water withdrawal are determined within two months upon completion of the established period of water use and water consumption by authorized organizations, proceeding from actual water availability in water sources.

Permissions for specific water use and water right

WMO functions on the basis of the permission for specific water use, which is issued every year by upper organ upon application of the Head of subordinate organization.

The main function of WMO is the water distribution management, i.e. activity related to distribution of water use rights and limits (among different users).

WMO supplies water to users, who have water rights. Water and land rights of Uzbek farmers are integral. When a farmer loses the land right, automatically the farmer loses the water right, i.e. WUA does not give to him permission for specific water use. Some countries abroad (e.g. Australia) practice separable water and land rights.

Procedure of water distribution planning

WMO does water distribution planning, which includes:

  • determination of seasonal water demand (growing and non-growing seasons) (i.e. drafting water distribution plans),
  • harmonization of water demands with the forecasts of water availability in irrigation sources (i.e. correcting water distribution plans and setting seasonal water limits),
  • correction of decade (ten-day) water supply limits.

According to the established procedure of water use, the process of drafting and adopting the water use plans consists of the following:

  • Water use plans of individual and dehkan farms, local community authorities and other water consumers are adopted by water consumer associations that serve the former.
  • Water consumer associations summarize water distribution plans and draft their water use plans.
  • The water use plans of water consumer associations and of other water users and consumers are summarized by irrigation system authorities and basin irrigation system authorities.

Principle of priority

The following priority of water supply is set in the Republic of Uzbekistan:

  • Drinking, public health and household water supply*
  • Industry
  • Agriculture
  • Sanitary and environmental water releases.

* Water withdrawal limits set for landscape gardening, sports and recreation are of the same priority as municipal needs

Principle of biological optimality

Water demand is determined on the basis of the biological optimality principle, with the use of such regimes of crop irrigation that allow achieving maximal yields. Crop irrigation regimes are differentiated by hydromodule zone, climatic and altitude zone.

Principle of proportionality (social equity)

In case of water shortage, seasonal water limits for agricultural water users are determined by the principle of social equity (principle of proportionality), taking into account water demand and water availability of irrigation sources.

The principle of proportionality is conflicting with the principle of economic optimality, which leads to maximal economic productivity of water use. A tradeoff (harmony) between the principle of social equity and the principle of economic optimality is theoretically possible and advisable in the long-term through water rights and water right trading (Australia).

Principle of rotation

In case of acute water shortage, water supply for agricultural needs is based on the principle of rotation, by which water is distributed among water users by turns (water rotation, avandoz, ob-gardon, avron).

The system of water use rules in CAR virtually has not been changed since Soviet times. By present, a need has arisen for improvement of the rules, especially as concerns water rights. The situation, where permission for special water use (i.e. water right) to farmers is given by WUA, i.e. the organization, which is established by farmers themselves, seems paradoxical. The situation, where originally farmers have water rights and delegate those rights to WUA, on the basis of which WUA should get permission (license) for special water use looks more logical.

Author: Mirzaev N.N., SIC ICWC