Estonia’s annual average surface water availability is 12 billion m3 and the groundwater potential is 3.2 billion m3.
The rivers are characterized by short flow distances and low flow rates. Only 10 rivers are longer than 100 km. The longest is the Võhandu (162 km) and the largest is the Narva, with a catchment area of 56,200 km2, only about one-third of which is within Estonia.
Of Estonia’s approximately 1,200 lakes, half have a surface area of less than 0.03 km2. The largest, Lake Peipsi, covering some 3,500 km2, is the fourth largest lake in Europe. It was the subject of in-depth case studies in the first and second editions of the World Water Development Report. Read more