All water on a surface of our planet forms an environment named as hydrosphere. The hydrosphere occupies the biggest part of its surface: more than 380 million km2, or more than 75 % (its general area is about 510 million km2).
The characteristics of hydrosphere is usually begun from figure of 361,2 million km2 that is claimed to be the area of the surface of the Earth that is covered with water. But that is only the area of the seas and oceans, and all hydrosphere occupies larger territory. Далее
Researchers Expect Warming Waters to Shrink Fish Size by 20% by 2050
An important study published September 30, 2012 in Nature reveals:
The size of aquatic water-breathers is strongly affected by temperature, oxygen level and other factors such as resource availability2, 14. Specifically, the maximum body weight ( ) of marine fishes and invertebrates is fundamentally limited by the balance between energy demand and supply, where is reached when energy demand = energy supply (thus net growth = 0).
What this means in practical terms is that as the oceans get warmer fish are expected to get smaller. Much smaller. Body weights are expected to shrink by 14 to 24% between 2000 and 2050. Tropical waters will be affected most, with an average fish size reduction of more than 20%.
One of the excellent illustrations in the Nature study showing the decline in fish size as related to warming of the oceans.
Researchers from the University of British Columbia used computer modeling to study the effects of changes in the ocean and climate systems on 600 species of fish. The study’s lead author, William Cheung, emphasized that he and his colleagues were “surprised to see such a large decrease in fish size.” Fish in the tropics, who are smaller-bodied, are especially affected by warmer ocean temperatures and will migrate to regions that are now temperate or even to polar ones. Далее
In all ancient cultures sea occupies the special place. Set of the gods and supernatural beings is born there. According to the legends of continental Kelts, wizard Marlin and fairy Morgana appeared in the sea, and Dilan Ail Tone (Dilan, son of waves), Valley god; in Greece there was a goddess of love Afrodita appeared from sea foam, and her brother, solar god Apollon was born on Delos island, where sea monsters find a shelter.
In Mesopotamian myths one can find Oanness – the huge fish with human head which has left ocean to bring civilization to people. Kings-dragons are sometimes kind, sometimes angry. In the legends of the Indians of Mexico it was told about great feather dragon Cesalecoatle which has left the sea and has revived mankind destroyed by a flood. He has taught people everything necessary for life and after that has left on east on the raft made of bound snakes. All these myths and legends show the influence of sea on people. Далее
Thousands have lived without love, not one without water.
W. H. Auden.
Ye nymphs that reign o’er sewers and sinks,
The river Rhine, it is well known,
Doth wash your city of Cologne.
But tell me nymphs, what power divine
Shall henceforth wash the river Rhine?
Samuel Taylor Coleridge.
Probably you have decided from the above that I am a member of the Flat Earth Society and a nonbeliever in the microworld. Not so. In fact, I read with open-mouthed wonder of the doings of positrons, quarks, and neutrinos and I stand amazed at the diversity of creation. Under every gnat’s armpit there remain a billion universes to be discovered. There’s nothing new about this. An 18th century poet stated it eloquently:
On every flea, there’s a flea to bite him,
So on and on, ad infinitum.
Appreciation for the rich microworld teeming with life does not require, however, that one profess faith in the gospel preached by today’s pseudo-science establishment any more than belief in God requires belief in Jimmy Swaggart. In other Gazette articles I have frequently confessed that I do not worship at Robert Gallo’s altar. Далее
In technology of processing of water the essential role is played not only by the total amount of the weighed substances, contained in it, but also their dispersity, structure, structure and properties.
The optimum technological circuit of processing of water and charge of reagents on their removal depends on the physico-chemical characteristics of insoluble impurities. Далее