Water treatment is a process of making water suitable for its application or returning its natural state. Thus, water treatment required before and after its application. The required treatment depends on the application. For example, treatment of greywater (from bath, dish and wash water) differs from the black water (from flush toilets). Composting toilet is not allowed in urban dwelling. Yet, composting toilets are used in a 30,000-square-foot office complex at the Institute of Asian Research, University of British Columbia.
Water treatment involves science, engineering, business, and art. The treatment may include mechanical, physical, biological, and chemical methods. As with any technology, science is the foundation, and engineering makes sure that the technology works as designed. The appearance and application of water is an art.
In terms of business, RGF Environmental, Water Energy Technologies, Aquasana Store, Vitech, Recalyx Industrial SDN BHD and PACE Chemicals ltd are some of many companies that offer various processes for water treatment. Millipore, a Fisher Scientific partner, offers many lines of products to produce ultrapure water, using a combination of active charcoal membranes, and reverse osmosis filter. Internet sites of these companies offer useful information regarding water.
An environmental scientist or consultant matches the service provider, modify if necessary, with the requirement.
Natural Water includes some discussion on hard and soft water. Softening hard water for boiler, cooler, and domestic application is discussed therein. These treatments prepare water so that it is suitable for the applications.
Water Biology deals with water and biology. Drinking water is part of making water suitable for living. Thus, this link gives some considerations to drinking water problems.
There are many different industry types, and waters from various sources are usually treated before and after their applications. Pre-application treatment and wastewater treatment offer a special opportunity or challenge. Only a general consideration will be given to some industrial processes.
General municipal and domestic wastewater treatment converts used water (waste) into environmentally acceptable water or even drinking water. Every urban centre requires such a facility.