Photographer Mark Tipple captured the underwater pictures with his friend Mike as the surfer. But the rough waves of the coast of the Cook Islands slammed Mike into the sea bed during the shoot, causing him to slice his skin open and badly bruise his body.
Stunning pictures of waves crashing from underneath
There is some confusion in the water industry about the meanings and differences between water purifiers and water filters. Many industries use the two terms interchangeably to describe the same process, i.e. filtration. A technical definition of pure water would refer to water containing only hydrogen and oxygen molecules.
Such “pure” water does not occur naturally in the world. All water contains some impurities, or elements of different chemical compounds than merely hydrogen and water (Binnie et al, 2002). As water passes through streams and rivers, it carries mineral sediments with it. Ground water, the source for most municipal water systems, contains remnants of pesticides, herbicides, and industrial waste. Water generally carries several bacteria and viruses, as well. Read more
Water scarcity is a fact of life in many parts of the world, particularly in the countries of sub-Saharan Africa. A new study says the situation could get a lot worse, with climate change resulting in less rain and more evaporation in many areas.
Warming will expose 668 million people worldwide to new or aggravated water scarcity – that’s in addition to the 1.3 billion people already at present living in water-scarce regions. Credit: Nourishing the Planet
The study, led by researchers at the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact and Research and appearing in the journal Environmental Research Letters, looks at present commitments by countries to reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs). It says that even if these commitments or pledges are met, the global mean temperature will still rise by around 3.5°C above pre-industrial levels by the end of the century. Read more
Technically, the term “water treatment” refers to any modifications made to raw water (water from the original source, i.e. rivers, lakes, streams, etc.). Included under the umbrella term “water treatment” are both water softeners and water filters. For this reason, the functions of the two different technologies are often seen as interchangeable.
Water filters and softeners do, in fact, serve very different purposes. The main goal of a water filter is to provide clean, contaminant-free water for drinking and other purposes. The main goal of a water softener is to remove “hardening” minerals like calcium and magnesium from the water. Water softeners do not remove dangerous chemicals or bacteria. Read more
There are two major factors involved when comparing prices among the three modes of water purification. First, one must consider the energy needed to clean and filter water. Reverse osmosis, with its dependence upon high pressure to subvert the normal flow of water, requires an energy source and is fairly costly. Distillation, with its dependence upon heat to vaporize ground and surface water, also requires an energy source.
Though solar power remains an option for the required heat of distillation, it is still fairly inefficient and impractical. Carbon and multimedia water filters, whether installed at the point of water’s entry in a house or at a tap, do not require any added energy source. Water flows just as it normally would; it is merely diverted through the filter. The higher electricity costs of reverse osmosis and distillation systems double the total cost of the purified water product which carbon and multimedia filters produce. Read more