Distillation – How does it work?

Distillation is a water purification process that uses a heat source to vaporize water and separate it from contaminants and other undesirable elements commonly found in ground and surface water.distillation

Distillation heats raw (untreated) water until the water reaches its boiling point and begins to vaporize. The heat is then kept at a constant temperature to maintain water vaporization while prohibiting other undesirable elements from vaporizing. Water has a lower boiling point than salt and other mineral sediments. Read more

Reverse Osmosis – Pros and Cons

The semi-permeable membrane used in reverse osmosis contains tiny pores through which water can flow. The small pores of this membrane are restrictive to such organic compounds as salt and other natural minerals, which generally have a larger molecular composition than water.


These pores are also restrictive to bacteria and disease-causing pathogens. Thus, reverse osmosis is incredibly effective at desalinating water and providing mineral-free water for use in photo or print shops. It is also effective at providing pathogen-free water. In areas not receiving municipally treated water or at particular risk of waterborne diseases, reverse osmosis is an ideal process of contaminant removal. Read more

Filtration – How does it work?

The process of filtration involves the flow of water through a granular bed, of sand or another suitable media, at a low speed. The media retains most solid matter while permitting the water to pass. The process of filtration is usually repeated to ensure adequate removal of unwanted particles in the water (Ramstorp, 2003). This type of slow filtration over a granular bed is generally known as slow sand filtration. It is the oldest method of filtration but still widely used in municipal water treatment plants today.


More modern filtration systems use carbon as the main constituent material of the filter. This carbon is compressed into a solid block form, as opposed to the more loosely structured, granular, sand filters. Such filters often include other media substances, in addition to the compressed, solid carbon. This type of water filter is known as a multimedia filter. These filters clean water through both physical and chemical processes. Read more

Water Treatment Alternatives – Reverse Osmosis

Reverse osmosis refers to a process of water purification that has been used primarily for the desalination of seawater. To understand reverse osmosis, it is first necessary to understand osmosis.


Osmosis is the term for the phenomenon whereby if a semi-permeable membrane separates two salt solutions of different concentration, water will migrate from the weaker solution through the membrane to the stronger solution, until the solutions are of the same salt concentration. Reverse osmosis subverts this process. Read more

The Future of Water Filtration

The current major concerns in regard to water quality are lead and disinfection byproducts (Binnie et al, 2002). Lead is a key operational and treatment concern for municipal water treatment plants. It cannot be considered independently of other water quality and treatment issues.

In fact, it seems that water disinfection and protection from lead infiltration are at odds with each other. The pH level required for disinfection must be below 8.0, but the pH level required to minimize lead solvency in plumbing systems is often 8.0 or higher.

Water treatment plants provide clean, disinfected water to home plumbing systems, but this water is immediately contaminated from lead as it passes through the plumbing system. The solution to this problem may be the removal of lead from plumbing systems, a factor that would completely revolutionize the plumbing industry. Read more