What happens to the rain after it hits the ground? Where does it go? Where did it come from? Let’s start at the beginning!
We don’t lose or gain any water. The water that we have we got when the earth was just being formed. This means that the water in your cup has been around for many hundreds of millions of years. It gets recycled through a process called the water cycle. Далее
History is, one might say, somewhat waterlogged. Since water is absolutely essential to human life, it should not be surprising that it is an important component of human history. Yet it is surprising how little attention water receives in historical accounts.
Humans have generally settled near convenient sources of water. Most of the great ancient civilizations depended on a particular source of water. For example, the Egyptians centered their civilization on the Nile. Mesopotamia (Greek for the land between the rivers, the Tigris and the Euphrates) was the home of several important ancient empires. Chinese civilization was located principally in the Yellow and Yangzi river basins. In the case of these great civilizations, there usually is considerable discussion of water as a fundamental aspect of the civilization in question. Далее
Many living organisms live their lives entirely in water as shown here in this photo from a job center talking about work in marine biology.
Aquatic living organisms extract neutrients from water, yet maintaining a balance of electrolyte and nurrishment concentration in their cells. For living things not living in water, they extract water from their environment by whatever mechanism they can. Cells in their body are surrounded by body fluid, and all cells maintain constant concentrations of electrolytes, neutrints, and metabolites. The process of maintaining constant concentrations is called homeostasis. Certainly, some active transport mechanisms are involved in this balance.
The rooting of every type of plants is unique. Generally speaking, plants having extensive roots are able to extract water under harsh conditions. On the other hand, some plants such as cactus, jade and juniper have little roots, but their leaves have a layer of wax that prevents water from evaporation. Water conserving plants tolerate draught, and they survive under harsh conditions. The picture shown here is a jade plant from the above link.
Lately, some pumpkin growers harvested squash weighing almost 500 kg. At the peak of the growing season, the squash grows almost 0.5 kg a day. That is equivalent to 25 moles of water collected by the roots, discounting the water evaporated through the leaves. The growth is particularly good during a hot and wet day, but during a hot sunny after noon, the temperature of the leaves and fruits get very hot.
The remarkable chemical and physical properties of water, primarily resulting from hydrogen bonding, have major consequences for all living organisms.
The properties of water place limits on organisms — on their physiology, anatomy, behavior, distributions, and evolution — but simultaneously provide evolutionary and ecological opportunities. Далее
Speaking about the topic of “women and water” is really impossible. The conceptual category “woman” is a socially constructed and constructing set of ideas that varies from historical time period to time period and culture to culture.
This would of course mean that “women’s” (as a conceptual category) relationship with water changes throughout time and across cultures as well. There is no homogoneous category of “woman” into which all women at all times fit into. Далее